Two approaches are used passive targeting and active targeting. Passive targeting: Passive targeting refers to the accumulation of drug or drug-carrier system at a particular site due to physicochemical or pharmacological factors.
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Drug or drug carrier nanosystems can be passively targeted making use of the patho-physiological and anatomical opportunities. Direct coupling of drugs to targeting ligand, restricts the coupling capacity to a few drug molecules. In contrast, coupling of drug carrier nanosystems to ligands allows import of thousands of drug molecules by means of one receptor targeted ligand. Example of active targeting is use of monoclonal antibody the treatment of cancer. This active targeting approach can be furth further classified into three different levels of targeting. First order targeting it refers to restricted distribution of the drug carrier systems to the capillary bed of a predetermined target site, organ or tissue.
Example includes compartmental targeting in lymphatics, peritoneal cavity, plural cavity, cerebral ventricles, eyes, joints, etc. Second order targeting selective delivery of drugs to specific cell types such as tumour cells and not to the normal cells is referred as second order targeting.
Eg include selective drug delivery to kupffer cells in the liver. Third order targeting defined as drug delivery specifically to the intracellular site of targeted cells. Subscribe to Pharmatutor Alerts by Email. Syllabus level exams. Reading Material. Find More. Click here.
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